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Unit VI Reproduction

Chapter 1: Sexual reproduction in flowering plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, means and examples; reproductive mechanisms; interaction between pollen and pistil; double fertilization; events after fertilization – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special processes – apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; importance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter 2: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testes and ovaries; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryonic development to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placental formation (elementary concept); birth (elementary concept); lactation (elementary concept).

Chapter 3: Reproductive health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); Contraception – necessity and methods, contraception and medical abortion (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 4: Principles of inheritance and variation Inheritance and variation:

Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of ​​polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bees; linkage and crossing-over; sex-linked inheritance – hemophilia, color blindness; Mendelian diseases in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down syndrome, Turner and Klinefelter syndrome.

Chapter 5: Molecular basis of inheritance. Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material. Structure of DNA and RNA. DNA packaging. DNA replication. Central dogma. Transcription, genetic code, translation. Gene expression and regulation – Lac operon. Genome, human and rice genome projects. DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter 6: Evolution. Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Well-Being

Chapter 7: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebic dysentery, ringworm) and their control; basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 8: Microbes in human well-being

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, wastewater treatment, energy production and microbes as biological control agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and prudent use.

Unit IX: Biotechnology and its applications

Chapter 9: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology).

Chapter 10: Biotechnology and its applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy;

genetically modified organisms – Bt plants; genetically modified animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter 11: Organisms and populations. Interactions between populations – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population characteristics – growth, birth and death rates, age distribution. (Excluded topics: Organisms and their environment, important abiotic factors, responses to abiotic factors, adaptations).

Chapter 12: Ecosystem Ecosystems: patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Excluded topics: ecological succession and nutrient cycling).

Chapter 13: Biodiversity and its conservation. Biodiversity – concept, patterns, importance, biodiversity loss, biodiversity conservation, hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, sacred groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, protected areas and Ramsar sites.